The .38-55 Winchester cartridge is named for its approximately .38 caliber bullet (actually .3775 caliber) and was introduced in 1884 by Ballard for various single-shot target rifles. It was later used by Winchester for its Model 1894 lever-action rifle. Winchester continued to use the round in various rifles until about 1940, and also used it in a few commemorative editions of rifles since then. Recently, Marlin has begun making lever-guns chambered in .38-55. H&R is also now making 1871 replica models.
The .38-55 is renowned for its exceptional accuracy at ranges up to 330 yards, and is often used to hunt black bear and deer at moderate ranges.