Ballistics Background

Ballistics Background

Ballistics Background
Some understanding of bullet trajectory and the physical factors affecting bullet flight is needed as background before discussing optics.
In the simplest case, take an accurate rifle with sights zeroed at 100 yards shooting one type of ammunition. In the absence of wind or shooter error, the bullet will impact the point of aim (POA) when the target distance is 100 yards-- hence its "zero" is at 100 yards.

The "line of aim" is a line straight from the shooter's eye, through the sighting device, to the target. The bullet starts off below the LOA by the distance between the center of the sighting device and the center of the bore. This is called the "sight over bore" distance. The axis of the bore is not parallel to the LOA-- the bore is angled slightly upwards. This causes the bullet to start off with some "upward" velocity. As it flies down-range, it rises to meet the point of aim (POA) which is where the LOA intersects with the target.

Depending on the bullet's velocity, the bullet might keep rising above the LOA and again intersect with it a second time as it falls. Alternatively, it may rise just enough to meet the LOA and then start to fall again.
In this graph, two loads are displayed. The green trajectory is a 308 load zeroed at 100 yards. It starts 2" low, rises to the LOA at 100 yards, and then drops off the graph 8" low at 267 yards.

The red trajectory is the same load zeroed at 200 yards. It starts 2" low, intersects with the LOA the first time at about 40 yards. At 120 yards, it's about 1.6" above the LOA, then drops, intersecting the LOA again at 200 yards. This is the second, or primary, zero. At 300 yards, it's about 7" low.

Looking at the graph with the 200 yard zero, the point of impact (POI) at 100 yards would be about 1.6" above the point of aim (POA). At 240, the POI will be 2" below the POA. At 300, the POI will be 7.5" below the POA. Thus, to hit a small target at 300 yards, the shooter would have to hold 7" above the target. The bullet continues to fall relative to the line of aim as target range is increased.

A table can be constructed which relates the drop distance for every range out to the maximum engagement range. An abbreviated table might look like this, for a rifle with a 100 yard zero. (An actual table would have intermediate distances like 120, 140, etc.)

100 0"
200 2.87"
300 11.2"
400 25.6"
500 46.9"
600 76.0"
700 114.9"
800 161.7"
This is helpful, but the shooter is left with the problem of how to aim 47" higher than the target when the distance is 500 yards. There won't be a 47" yardstick sticking out above the target. Aiming the cross-hairs at a point imagined to be 47" above the target is difficult and very error prone.

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8 years 26 weeks ago, 3:45 PM


runawaygun762's picture

Vice President
Join Date:
Nov 2008
Richland, MO, United States
Aiming 47" higher

This is why solid, repeatable adjustments on the scope are necessary. Most normal scopes have 1/4 MOA adjustments, (approx 1/4" at 100 yds), while many high-end scopes have 1/8 MOA adjustments (approx 1/8" at 100 yds). With a 1/4 MOA scope, at 500 yds, one click changes the POA (Point of Aim) approx 1 1/4", so you'd go up 38 clicks and your POI (Point of Impact) should be about half an inch high. You can also use objects of known sizes to assist with holdovers. If your target is in a doorway, we know most doorways are seven feet high and three feet wide, so we can use that to help with the proper holdover. There are some who say you must have a mil-dot reticle for accurate long distance shooting, but this isn't necessarily true. Mil-dot or mil-dash or stadia line reticles help with range estimation, holdover, and Kentucky windage, but they are not necessary.

"I have always been a soldier. I have known no other life. The calling of arms, I have followed from boyhood. I have never sought another." From The Virtues of War, by Steven Pressfield.
samD's picture
Posted by: samD
8 years 27 weeks ago

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